TIKVAH BREIMER / PROGRAM MANAGEMENT / CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT / ALONGSIDE ADVISORY
SO FAR FROM THE PIPES, SO CLOSE TO THE CITY
For a less-technical reflection of my creative content work with photography on these themes, see Instagram Urban Beyond the City and get a glimpse of my stay with a woman in the peri-urban area of Jaboatao, north east Brazil. If you click on a photograph in Instagram, you get a tiny story with it. It is a storytelling board, so do start with the first photograph. I am still in touch with the people you meet here, so if you do have a question, let me know.

As for the technical orientation of my photography in the gallery on this website for professionals, to me, eventually it is about an interdisciplinary, open exploration of how to realise access to affordable (and legalised) serviced land in the peri-urban interface, with at least water servicing at the plot level.

The peri-urban interface refers not only to the fringe of the city, but also to a context where both rural and urban features tend to co-exist in environmental, socio-economical and institutional terms, and where there is high expectation on the land (DPU 2006).

Serviced land is understood as 'land designated for urban use and provided with basic public services (water, sewerage, paved roads, electric and telephone utilities and the like), and with access to municipal functions such as employment, education and public transport' (Smolka & Cenecorta 1999).

To be legitimate in the eyes of its people, democracy must deliver. In new democracies in the South people may be especially fierce about wanting to see improvement in terms of basic services for the poor, such as access to water (Breimer 2006). And so, when Western concepts are superimposed on such a society, this may lead to a lot of resistance. An example is Bolivia, where under a wave of water privatisation, it eventually became illegal for city residents to collect rainwater for drinking under the rules introduced by a new private contractor (Mitlin, Beard, Satterthwait and Du 2019, 26). Eventually it contributed to the so-called water wars in Cochabamba in response to the privatization of the city's municipal water supply company (Barlow & Clarke 2005).

Cities must recognize that equitable access to reasonable amounts of safe, reliable and affordable water is a social good. 'Treating water as a commodity best managed by the market has not resulted in more equitable access in the global South. Water is a human right and a social good that is essential to human life, health and well-being' (Mitlin, Beard, Satterthwait and Du 2019, 5).

'Extending the piped water network within cities and ensuring there are adequate supplies of piped water is the best way to provide residents with the safest water at the lowest price.' '(...) 'An extended, networked water infrastructure system is the result of coordinated urban planning, good governance, and substantial financial investment' (Mitlin, Beard, Satterthwait and Du 2019, 5).

Although access to water for plots or dwellings is most desirable, interim measures are possible (ibid 2019).

With my photography, I find an entry to explore more, very open, of how the two come together in the periphery: land and water.

STRUCTURAL AND INTERMEDIATE INTERVENTIONS
The point of the photography and accompanying texts here is not to transfer knowledge or train in skills, but to ignite understandings, inspirations, connections.

Coming from a background of Anthropology and Sociology of non-western countries, I am very much interested in structural factors leading to poverty. My subsequent professional training in and teaching on land markets and -development reflects that interest, and has ignited an exploration of interventions at the structural level.

Even so, there are also intermediate interventions which can make an important contribution to improvement of the living conditions of the poor in the periphery.

The photography and contributions here try to capture both structural and intermediate interventions.


BACKGROUND EXPERIENCE
For the exploration I am inspired by the training (MSc Erasmus University Rotterdam at the Institute for Housing and Urban development studies) and subsequent working experience I have had at the same institute as a specialist in (peri-)urban land markets and access to serviced land. I learnt to see with new eyes.

My fieldwork in Nicaragua and subsequent thesis on legitimate democratisation as part of my degree in Anthropology at Utrecht University, have had an important influence on the orientation of the exploration.

When it comes to water issues, coming from a land background, my angle at the structural level is perhaps best captured by what I sometimes call 'water economics'. I also feel inspired by the time that I worked as a program officer in Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) with PLAN. Working for an NGO, puts your feet on the ground.

My specialisation is the peri urban land market. It is a relatively new subject of research and an area that is fast changing. Here exploration to better understand the land market collides with application and tailoring of an existing body of knowledge on land instruments and water interventions.

The work on this website is completely organic, I do not have a pre defined direction with it. Instead it is an incremental work with an open end. For relevant publications see below.


REFERENCES
Barlow, Maude and Tony Clarke 2005. Blue Gold: The Fight to Stop the Corporate Theft of the World's Water.

Breimer, Tikvah A. 2006. On Icaruswings; a new student generation in Nicaragua, and the revolutionary ideas for democracy now and then.Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. (Dutch)

Breimer, Tikvah A. 2012. Open building as an approach for more effective core-housing implementation? An exploration.Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Breimer, Tikvah 2014. Preparing for rapid urbanization in the land market of the peri-urban interface (PUI). Cairo (EGY): ARCHCAIRO.

Breimer, Tikvah 2015. Rafelranden van de stad. Erasmus University: Erasmus Magazine. (in Dutch)

Development Planning Unit (DPU). 2006. So close to the city, so far from the pipes; The Governance of Water & Sanitation and the Peri-Urban Poor. University College London.

Mitlin, Diana, Victoria A. Beard, David Satterthwait and Jullian Du, 2019. Unaffordable and Undrinkable: Rethinking Urban Water Access in the Global South.World Resources Report, Working paper.

Smolka, Martim O. and Alfonso Iracheta Cenecorta, 1999 Mobilizing Land Value Increments to Provide Serviced Land for the Poor. Lincoln Institute of Land Policy (LILP), Land Lines, July.